Background: in Albania there are no reliable tools to assess the presence of pain in non-verbal patients. The objective of our study was to provide a linguistic validation of the Checklist Non-verbal Pain Indicators (CNPI) in Albanian. Methods: after the back-translation, we used the Albanian version in a cross-sectional study to verify both the reliability and the validity of this instrument in clinical settings. The Visual Analog Scale was adopted as gold standard. Cohen’s kappa and the Pearson correlation coefficient were also used. Construct validity of the CNPI was established by exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha. Results: an Albanian version with 7 items was obtained. The Pearson coefficient showed a strong correlation at rest (T0= .88) and during movement (T1= .87). A low level of agreement was found for Item 1 (Vocal Complains – non-verbal) and Item 5 (Rubbing) (moderate agreement). For all the other items there was a high level of agreement, except for Item 7. The Pearson coefficient values indicate that there is a modest correlation between the two instruments in the measurement at T0 ( .5229), which however increases when scoring is registered at T1 ( .6214). The Cronbach’s alpha at T0 was .93 and at T1 was .87. EFA resulted with a 2-factor solution at T0 and a 3-factor solution at T1.Conclusions: the CNPI is a simple and short assessment tool with the potential to facilitate alertness to make the staff aware of pain experience in non-verbal patients.
Keywords: non-verbal pain indicators (CNPI), linguistic validation, albanian language
Received: October 1st, 2018
Accepted: October 30, 2018